While it is recognized that there are general environmental techniques and procedures to minimize environmental damage, site-specific conditions may require a solution unique to that location. Grass seed mixtures must be applied to all exposed soil that will support vegegation in the first growing season after construction. Areas to be revegetated include inactive borrow pits, waste areas, road cuts, fill slopes, and all other disturbed areas.

There are many species and varieties of grasses and legumes. Each mix is usually suited to a particular application and site. In British Columbia, where rainfall, winter and summer temperatures and elevation vary widely, site specific formulations are the key to success.

Native plant installations

In riparian areas and some slope situations, it si desireable to plant appropriate trees and shrubs as well as grass and legumes. Woody plants provide stronger root systems thatn grass and contribute to restoring the productivity of the riparian area or stream and, in all application, provide slope stability.

Dry Seeding

The best time to place seed is immediately after the ground has been disturbed. This allows the seed to fall into openings in the soil, before the surface becomes compacted by the effects of weather. However, consideration must be given to moisture and temperature conditions. For best results, it is

Hydro seeding

Hydro-seeding offers engineers and erosion control professionals a variety of options in erosion protection. Its ability to broadcast seeds over a large, inaccessible area quickly, safely, accurately, and with a relatively high probability of germination offers unique advantages.

The photo on the left displays a hydroseeded grass mix unit after 1 year. Applying seed in a liquid medium creates a "mat" which holds the seed in place. The addes mass increases accuracy and throw distance. The liquid medium adds stability to soils in exposed, windy areas, and the mulch assists in retaining soil moisture, accelerating germination, and enhancing the survival of grass seedlings.

Fertilizers, mulches, and additives

Hydro-mulches act as carrying agents in the hydro-seeding process. The most common hydro-mulches are made of paper, paper mill sludge, wood fibre, or a combination. In additional to acting as carrying agents, hyrdro-mulches help to retain soil moisture, enhancing seed germination and survival.

Additives, like tackifiers, soild bonding agents, moisture retention agents, and fertilizers can be incorporated into hydro-seeded mixtures. Depending upon site specific conditions, these additives may maintain their effectiveness for up to two years, beiodegrading over time.

Choosing hydro-seeding equipment

There are many types of hydro-seedking systems available. Each has its pros and cons. Sizes range from 30-gallon ATV-mounted pumpers to 30-gallon 4x4 pickup mounted units to 10-wheeled, 4000 gallon behemoths.

Stream Crossings Directory
Introduction Crossing Structures
Planning Revegetation
Protecting Aquatic Habitat Deactivation
Information for this wall chart was compiled by Eric L. Kay, of  Kay and Associates, Forest Road Consultants and International Training Consultants

This wall chart was produced by Logging and Sawmilling Journal